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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 210-215

Dietary intake of Vitamin D pattern and its sociodemographic determinants in the Southwest of Iran, Khuzestan: An application of marginalised two-part model

1 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Nutrition, Nutritional Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad; Department of Nutrition, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Researcher Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Anoshirvan Kazemnejad
Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_5_19

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Background: Dietary intake of Vitamin D is an effective public health strategy to improve the current low Vitamin D status of populations. This research aimed to identify subpopulations at greater risk for Vitamin D deficiency. We studied the sociodemographic factors that are potentially associated with dietary intake of Vitamin D in the Iranian population. To do so, we used a marginalised two-part (MTP) model to control for the substantial proportion of zero Vitamin D intake. Methods: Data from 180 cross-sectional random samples were recorded. Dietary intake of Vitamin D was assessed using a 168-item validated food frequency questionnaire. Sociodemographic factors associated with intake of Vitamin D were explored using MTP-Weibull. Results: Mean (standard deviation) daily dietary Vitamin D intake was 0.54 (0.70) μg/day which was below the standard recommended level for all participants. The 'fish, milk and eggs' food group contributed 50% of total dietary intake of Vitamin D. Higher intake was associated with higher levels of education (P = 0.003). Furthermore, the odds of Vitamin D intake was associated with smoking status (odds ratio = 0.613, confidence interval: 0.407–0.914); where smoking decreases the chance of having a non-zero Vitamin D intake by 38.7%. Conclusion: Dietary intake of Vitamin D is below the recommended levels in our study in Iran, a developing country. We identified that education level and smoking status are associated with low intake. This result could lead to the straightforward recommendation for smokers and less-educated individuals to increase their intake of Vitamin D-rich foods.

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