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  Most popular articles (Since September 08, 2016)

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of Terminalia Arjuna on total platelet count and lipid profile in patients of coronary artery disease
Nidhi Priya, KC Mathur, A Sharma, RP Agrawal, V Agarwal, Jitendra Acharya
January-April 2019, 9(1):98-101
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_8_18  
Objective: Our study was undertaken to observe the effect of Terminalia arjuna on total platelet count, lipid profile, clinical parameters in patients of coronary artery disease (CAD) and their usefulness in the same patient group. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients having CAD were selected and randomised to study group (to receive Arjuna Chhal Powder) and control group (not receiving any medication). After the therapy of 1 month with Arjuna Chhal Powder, patients of both study and control groups evaluated for body weight, blood pressure, pulse rate, total platelet count and lipid profile. Observations were analysed with use of appropriate statistical test. Results: We observed 0.22% decrease in body weight in study group although insignificant. The systolic blood pressure decreased by 10.28% and diastolic blood pressure by 4.8% in the study group which was statistically significant in comparison to control group. The pulse rate has shown a decrement of 4.85% of baseline and total platelet count decreased by 10.81% with statistically significant difference. Lipid profile improved with 10.2% reduction in total cholesterol level, 17.9% reduction in serum triglyceride level, 9.59% reduction in serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level, 16% reduction in serum very LDL level and 10.48% increase in serum high-density lipoprotein level, all being statistically significant. Conclusions: T. arjuna bark extract can significantly reduce blood pressure and favourably modify lipid profile. It might also have antioxidant properties and may be beneficial for cardiac as well as overall health.
  27,204 371 -
Incidence of cord around the neck and its effects on labour and neonatal outcome
Khushboo Joshi, Ruchi Saxena, Madhu Bhat, Yashpal Lomrod, Kamala Verma
January-April 2017, 7(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.199535  
Background: The umbilical cord is a narrow tube-like structure that connects the developing baby to the placenta. Most of the nuchal cords diagnosed in early pregnancy get spontaneously uncoiled. This study was carried out to show that such natural occurrence does not have significant effect on pregnancy, labour and neonates if proper intra-partum foetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring could be provided by a caregiver. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner (Rajasthan). For completing 100 cases with nuchal cord, we had to observe 506 cases and by which we took out the incidence of nuchal cord and which was separately categorised into single, double, triple and four and more than four groups. Results: The present study showed mean cord length also increases with number of loops (50.93 cm in single loop as compared to 72.33 cm) in cases with four loops and showed that patients having tight nuchal cord have higher incidence of caesarean as well as forceps delivery, but these were not statistically significant (P = 0.56 and P= 0.57) and Apgar score <7 at 1 min, FHR deceleration and meconium staining of liquor were statistically higher significant (P = 0.001,P= 0.0001 and P= 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: At present, expertise to diagnose multiple and tight loops on ultrasound are limited, which should be the aim for future. Multicentric and large studies are further required in association with more specific and sensitive diagnostic aid for tight and multiple loops so as to provide the best perinatal management with good foetal outcome.
  12,566 501 -
CASE REPORTS
Management of exposed collagen membrane after socket seal surgery for placement of dental implant
Prasad Nadig, Monali Shah, Ashit Bharwani, Priyadarshini Nadig
May-August 2017, 7(2):95-98
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_27_16  
The predictable success of dental implants has revolutionised dentistry in many ways. Clinicians are becoming more vigilant in planning teeth extraction than ever before. This has led to the routine use of the concept of the socket preservation after tooth extraction and before the placement of dental implant. This routine use of collagen membrane use for socket preservation has uncovered a new situation of the exposed collagen membrane left intentionally or unintentionally which has to be dealt with frequently. The management of such exposed collagen membrane becomes vital for the success of socket seal surgery. This case report emphasises on the management of exposed collagen membrane after socket seal surgery and before placement of dental implant.
  11,967 407 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
New Treatment Approaches of Oral Mucositis: A Review of Literature
Narges Gholizadeh, Nafiseh Sheykhbahaei, Maryam-Sadat Sadrzadeh-Afshar
May-August 2016, 6(2):66-72
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.190319  
Oral mucositis (OM) is described as inflammation of the mucosa in the oral cavity which is caused by destruction of the oral mucosal epithelial cells and growth suppression secondary to cancer treatment in the form of radiotherapy or chemotherapeutic drug substances. It is the most debilitating condition and the most common complication in cancer patients. It appears first by thinning of oral tissues which leads to erythema. As these tissues become thinner, ulceration eventually occurs. Potential complications include pain, increased risk of local and systemic infections, bleeding and insufficient food intake and may lead to breaks in treatment sessions. It is usually associated with pain, increased risk of infection and dysphasia and may lead to inadequate hydration and impaired nutritional status. Traditional management of OM has involved patient compliance and education, hydration, nutritional support, use of saline rinses, topical and systemic pain relief and infection surveillance and treatment. The PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Science Direct and Google were searched from 1998 to 2015. The search terms used for medical subject heading were 'oral mucositis' and 'new treatments of mucositis'. Unfortunately, there is not a single method which is capable of preventing or eliminating OM in an efficient way. In this article, we reviewed new therapeutic methods of OM including cryotherapy, honey and coffee, propolis, low-level laser therapy, growth factors, stem cell therapy, hyaluronic acid-based substances and matrix metalloprotease blockers.
  5,827 988 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of labour outcome in breech delivery
Suman Budania, Mukesh Kumar Beniwal, Geeta Choudhary
January-April 2017, 7(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.199534  
Aim: Breech is the most common form of malpresentation. It is defined as when foetus occupies a longitudinal lie with the pelvic extremity at the pelvic brim and head at the fundus of the uterus. The present study was conducted on 100 cases of breech presentation to find out the labour outcome in breech deliveries and various factors affecting it. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Umaid Hospital, attached to Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur. A total of 100 cases of breech presentation including single as well as plural pregnancies in which one or more foetuses were presenting as breech were taken. Both booked and unbooked cases in primigravidae and multigravidae were studied. The cases were selected at random among those who got admitted in labour room. Results: In the present series, incidence of breech deliveries came to be 4.1094%. Incidence of breech presentation was maximum (45%) in the age group of 21–25 years. In this study, out of 100 cases, 62 were multigravidae and 38 were primigravidae, and 43 cases (43%) were associated with factors which endanger of life of the foetus, among which twin pregnancy and pre-eclamptic toxaemia were the most commonly associated factors. In the present series, among 100 cases studied, 14 were breech babies and congenital malformation, of which hydrocephalus was the most common malformation found. Conclusion: The study concludes that prematurity is associated with high incidence of breech presentation. The most common variety of breech presentation is flexed breech, which is found more in multigravidae. Caesarean section is the mode of delivery of choice as it carries minimal foetal loss. Extended variety of breech is safest for the baby and carries minimal foetal loss.
  6,116 311 -
CASE REPORTS
Geographic Tongue: A Case Report with Review of Literature
Nupur Shah, Pratik Kariya, Bhavna Dave, Princy Thomas
September-December 2016, 6(3):142-144
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195321  
Tongue is a most delicate part of the oral cavity. It is in charge of numerous functions like swallowing, speech, mastication, speaking and breathing. Geographic tongue (Benign migratory glossitis, erythema migrans) is an asymptomatic inflammatory disorder of tongue with controversial etiology. This disease is characterized by erythematous areas showing raised greyish or white circulated lines or bands with irregular pattern on the dorsal surface of the tongue and depapillation. The objective in presenting the case report and literature review is to discuss the clinical presentation, etiological factors, associated syndrome and management strategies of geographic tongue.
  4,721 642 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Dental Anomalies: An Update
Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam
September-December 2016, 6(3):112-118
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195316  
Dental anomalies are usual congenital malformation that can happen either as isolated findings or as a part of a syndrome. Developmental anomalies influencing the morphology exists in both deciduous and permanent dentition and shows different forms such as gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens evaginatus (DE), enamel pearls, taurodontism or peg-shaped laterals. All These anomalies have clinical significance concerning aesthetics, malocclusion and more necessary preparing of the development of dental decays and oral diseases. Through a search in PubMed, Google, Scopus and Medline, a total of eighty original research papers during 1928-2016 were found with the keywords such as dental anomaly, syndrome, tooth and hypodontia. One hundred review titles were identified, eighty reviews were retrieved that were finally included as being relevant and of sufficient quality. In this review, dental anomalies including gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens invaginatus, DE, taurodontism, enamel pearls, fluorosis, peg-shaped laterals, dentinal dysplasia, regional odontodysplasia and hypodontia are discussed. Diagnosing dental abnormality needs a thorough evaluation of the patient, involving a medical, dental, familial and clinical history. Clinical examination and radiographic evaluation and in some of the cases, specific laboratory tests are also needed. Developmental dental anomalies require careful examination and treatment planning. Where one anomaly is present, clinicians should suspect that other anomalies may also be present. Moreover, careful clinical and radiographical examination is required. Furthermore, more complex cases need multidisciplinary planning and treatment.
  4,682 604 2
CASE REPORTS
Management of iatrogenically exposed maxillary sinus with a broken periosteal elevator trapped inside
Nureldeen Elhammali, Pratik Bipinkumar Kariya, Kirankumar Sudulakunta Vorse, Anit Singh
May-August 2017, 7(2):92-94
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_44_16  
Foreign bodies may be ingested after being inserted into an oral cavity or deposited in the body by traumatic or iatrogenic injury. Accidentally left out foreign materials are common complications of dental procedures including apical deposition of endodontic materials, sub-mucosal amalgam pieces, graphite tattoos and traumatically introduced dental materials and instruments. Once a foreign material is left behind within a soft and/or hard tissue, it promotes local inflammation and infection that may cause pain and/or destruction within the surrounding tissues. This article presents a case of retrieval of iatrogenically broken periosteal elevator trapped in the maxillary sinus.
  4,599 250 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of academic/non-academic factors and extracurricular activities influencing performance of medical students of faculty of medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia
Mainul Haque, Nor Azlina A Rahman, Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder, Nor Iza A Rahman, Seraj Zohurul Haque, Zainal Zulkifli, Halyna Lugova, Rabiu Muazu Musa, Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi
January-April 2018, 8(1):3-18
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_28_17  
Background: Physical and mental comfort is known to have a crucial influence on health and performance amongst medical students. Very often, medical students suffer from poor quality of life (QOL) related to the work-life balance due to the lack of sleep, nutritional and dietary disorders and low physical activity, resulting in a negative impact on their academic performance. This study aims to determine the potential academic/non-academic factors and extra-curricular activities influencing the performance of medical students in Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, UniSZA, Terengganu, Malaysia. A sample size of 300 respondents were recruited from Year I to V medical students. The questionnaire was adopted, modified and validated from a similar study in Saudi Arabia. Results: Majority of the students enjoy medical education are self-motivated, have a good command of English, non-smokers and have a sufficient sleep. Conclusion: University medical students possess good QOL within the optimum educational environment.
  4,351 426 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Social intelligence of parents with autism spectrum disorders impacts their emotional behaviour: A new proposed model for stabilising emotionality of these parents impacting their social intelligence
Vidya Bhagat, Mainul Haque, Nordin Bin Simbak, Kamarudin Jaalam
May-August 2017, 7(2):43-53
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_17_17  
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may affect all spheres of a child's life. Indeed, parents and siblings also live with emotional instabilities in the family. The experience of parents with ASD child can be distressing since they need to make more adjustments to the demanding need to cope with their life situations. Perhaps, their life is drastically exaggerated with their complexities of life. Particularly, their social life is radically affected. The presence of pervasive and severe deficits in children with ASD isolates these parents from their social life; demanding adjustments to their social environment of parents in their life situations shove them into distress and unstable emotions. Finally, they culminate being shattered in their interpersonal relationship, their family and social life. Indeed, these aspects of distress mask social intelligence of these parents, thus narrow down their focus more on the treatment rather than holistic management of their child. Thus, the management of ASD with these parents of the deficit children to reach their fullest abilities remains doubtful. Therefore, the objectives of this study are as follows: (a) to examine the impact of emotionality on social intelligence of parents blessed with autistic child, (b) to develop awareness regarding social intelligence and its significance among these parents, (c) to propose a new model stabilising emotionality of these parents through developing social adaption skills and (d) to suggest a new model as a guide in the current intervention regimens to ensure the emotional well-being and better social adoption. This study is made based on the keenly examined past evidence with the correlation of emotionality and its impact on social intelligence of the parents with ASD children. The results reveal that the social intelligence is perceived as lowered evidenced by poor social adjustment reflected in social isolation observed in the parents of children with ASD. A new model proposed for stabilising and developing awareness of social intelligence among the parents of ASD children. Integrating this model with the existing treatment paradigm has been suggested to attain the better result. The conclusion is drawn in this study by analysing the fact that considerable improvement in the diagnosed child may not amend the parent and family distress and drastically affect social intelligence. Indeed, the intervention can be more promising with the healthy personality of parents, where their multiple aspects of intelligence are not affected. The new proposed model of intervention can pave the way for further research in this regard.
  3,896 406 -
DNA vaccine: Methods and mechanisms
Saber Soltani, Abbas Farahani, Mahsa Dastranj, Navid Momenifar, Parviz Mohajeri, Amir Darb Emamie
September-December 2018, 8(3):132-139
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_74_17  
Infectious diseases are the biggest cause of mortality and morbidity in humans, especially in poor and developing countries. For many years, no new vaccine has been developed, which indicates the limitations of the development of common vaccines, including destruction and inactivation of the vaccine, weakened vaccines toxoids known as first-generation vaccines. Types of vaccines including: (1) First-generation vaccines, (2) second-generation vaccines or recombinant vaccines, (3) third-generation vaccines (gene vaccine). The study on DNA vaccines first began in the 1990s, when the plasmid DNA is injected into the skin or muscle was reported to induce antibody responses to antigens. Since DNA vaccines are easily designed and manufactured, they are easier to preserve them, and they are inexpensive, as one of the most desirable types of vaccine. However, more clinical trials are needed to prove the immune responses that immune to DNA vaccine in humans. Information on the vaccination method, adjuvant and the genetic structure of the vaccine is still not complete.
  3,746 454 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Deploying diode laser in periodontics: An evidence-based review
Nidhi Kirit Shah, Jasuma J Rai, Deepak H Dave, Jaimini K Patel
May-August 2018, 8(2):64-69
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_52_17  
Lasers have completely changed the concept of dental treatment since three and half decades of 20th century. After the invention of ruby laser by Maiman in 1960, laser has become the most magnetizing technology in dentistry. Diode Lasers have been used in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and also in implant treatment. In many countries Laser has become a part of the dental armamentarium. The included articles were searched from PubMed, Trip Database, Google scholar and Cocharane database. The purpose of this review article is to critically analyze the effectiveness of diode laser on soft and hard tissue in the field of Periodontics.
  3,147 605 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Generic medicine and prescribing: A quick assessment
Mainul Haque
September-December 2017, 7(3):101-108
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_26_17  
Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) describes that generic drugs are essential possibilities that allow better access to healthcare for all Americans. They are replicas of brand-name drugs and are the identical as those of brand-name drugs in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance features, and anticipated to use. Healthcare authorities and users can be guaranteed that FDA-approved generic drug products have met the same stiff principles as the innovator drug. The company that made Bayer aspirin fought in court enthusiastically to keep generic versions off the shelves, in the 1920s. The company lost in court, and consumers suddenly had an array of choices in generic aspirin. The Supreme Court of India uttering ‘the Supreme Court's ruling will prevent companies from further seeking unwarranted patents on HIV and other essential medicines.’ Generic medicine cannot be sold at a price higher than the branded medicine, so it is regularly a low-priced option. Thereafter, both the end user and the government who pay for part of the price of the medicine under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in Australia are benefitted. The treatment of diseases using essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasised by the WHO and many national health policies. Although there are some improvements in generic medicine prescribing, it has been advised by the WHO that ‘countries should intensify efforts to measure and regularly monitor medicine prices and availability, and adopt policy measures to address the issues identified.’
  3,374 313 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Are statins worthy for treatment of periodontitis? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Monali Shah, Prasad Muley, Arti Muley
January-April 2017, 7(1):8-14
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.199531  
Background: Statins are drugs used for locking the synthesis of cholesterol as it inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Besides action on cholesterol, statins also possess multiple pleiotropic actions such as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, angiogenesis promotion and increase in bone formation; other new pleiotropic effects of statins are continuously being described, but their clinical relevance has not been established. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis was planned to assess the effect of systemic or local statin therapy on clinical as well as radiographic periodontal parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methodology: A search was performed in the electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCO and Cochrane databases for randomised controlled trial on humans, and hand search was also carried out. The included articles were screened for their risk of bias and data extracted in predefined format. The meta-analysis was performed using comprehensive meta-analysis. Software: Random effects model was used for pooled analysis. Results: Six studies were included in systematic review having moderate to low risk of bias. Four studies were included in meta-analysis. Results of meta-analysis for clinical parameters such as clinical attachment level (1.95 mm), probing depth (2.28 mm) and marginal sulcular bleeding index (1.10) as well as for radiographic parameters such as intrabony defect (1.90 mm) were statistically significant for locally applied statins. Conclusion: As statins are effective and safe in short-term use and locally delivered and user-friendly, they can be more widely used in periodontal treatment.
  3,131 435 1
Revival of dermatoglyphics: Syndromes and disorders, a review
N Lakshmana, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, B Vamsi Pavani, M V R Ratnam, G Upendra
January-April 2017, 7(1):2-7
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.199528  
Dermatoglyphics deals with the study of the epidermal ridges and their configurations on the fingers, palms and soles. The word dermatoglyphics is derived from the Greek word 'Derma' meaning skin and 'glyphics' meaning carvings. Dermatoglyphics, once matured, remain unchanged throughout the life of an individual and are not influenced by either the environmental or, age-related factors. Because of these amazing qualities, these dermal ridges play a very crucial and important role in the personal identification of an individual, for forensic purposes, in twin diagnosis, racial variation and have applied values in various diseases and syndromes. Dermatoglyphics has, therefore, been accepted as a simple and inexpensive method for deciding whether a patient would have a particular genetic or, chromosomal defect or, not, and if so, to adopt the preventive strategies at the early enough stages.
  2,875 396 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of herbal mouthwash on periodontal parameters and P. gingivalis
Sonam Mufti, Sarvagna Dadawala, Phoram Patel, Monali Shah, Deepak Dave
January-April 2017, 7(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.199529  
Introduction: Inadequate control of dental plaque is one of the primary causative factors in the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease progression. Numerous agents have been available to reduce this plaque. Studies have shown the effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) and herbal mouthwash (HM) individually, but limited evidence has compared the efficacy of both clinically and microbiologically. Hence, this study evaluated the efficacy of HM and CHX on Porphyromonas gingivalis along with that of clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomised controlled double-blinded study. Thirty participants were divided into two groups (15 test and 15 controls). Each participant had undergone scaling and root planing and was then given either of the mouthwashes. Oral hygiene index-simplified, plaque index, gingival index and bleeding on probing were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were taken to evaluate P. gingivalis by polymerised chain reaction. Results: HM showed significant results, and when antimicrobial efficacy was combined, clinically no statistical significance was seen compared to CHX. Participants' perception was also similar for both mouthwashes. Conclusion: HM was found equally effective against periopathogens and well accepted by the participants.
  2,806 424 -
Comparison of perceived sleep quality among urban and rural adult population by Bengali Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
Himel Mondal, Shaikat Mondal, Chayan Baidya
January-April 2018, 8(1):36-40
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_44_17  
Background: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) assesses perceived quality of sleep. Bengali is the 6th language in the world according to the number of first language speakers. PSQI is presently not available in Bengali. Poor quality of sleep affects work efficiency and health of individual and it is increasing in urban as well as in rural population. Aim: The aim of the study was (1) to adapt PSQI in Bengali Language and (2) to find the prevalence rate of poor quality of sleep among urban and rural populations and to compare the rate. Materials and Methods: First, Bengali PSQI (BPSQI) was adapted by linguistic validation methods. Then, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among sample in a municipal ward and in a village by BPSQI. The prevalence of poor sleep quality among the sample was ascertained. Data were presented in percentage, mean and standard deviation. Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were used according to necessity with α = 0.05. Results: Adapted BPSQI instrument was found of acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.816). The prevalence rate of poor sleep quality in urban adult population was 42.58% and rural population was 35.89% (χ2 = 4.004, P = 0.0454). Adult females in urban area showed more prevalence rate of poor sleep quality (58.74%) than those of adult females in rural area (45.96%). Conclusion: Adapted BPSQI can be used as a self-administered questionnaire among Bengali native speakers. A significant percentage of urban and rural adult population suffers from poor quality of sleep. Adult population in urban area, especially adult females, suffers more from poor quality of sleep than rural population.
  2,905 284 1
Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Coffee Extract and 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on the Periodontal Pathogens Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Prevotella Intermedia, Fusobacterium Nucleatum and Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans: An In Vitro Study
Tien Lung Yi, Monali Shah, Divyaraj Raulji, Deepak Dave
May-August 2016, 6(2):99-103
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.190316  
Aim: Coffee extract has demonstrated significant antimicrobial properties against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. 0.2% chlorhexidine, a potent allopathic reagent, in the mouthwash form is considered the gold standard of chemical plaque control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of different concentrations of coffee extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on the following Gram-negative periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Bacterial suspensions of P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans were inoculated in agar plates with four, 5 mm diameter wells. Various concentrations of coffee extract and chlorhexidine mouthwash were added into wells in different plates and then incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The diameter of zones of inhibition was measured, and statistical analysis was done. Results: 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash showed greatest zone of inhibition against all periodontal pathogens. Coffee at a concentration of 20% and 15% showed activity against P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and A. actinomycetemcomitans. F. nucleatum was resistant to all concentrations of coffee extract. Conclusion: Coffee extract possesses antimicrobial activity against the various periodontal pathogens though not as efficacious as the standard chlorhexidine.
  2,732 389 2
EDITORIAL
Change: The New Constant of Life
Rohan Bhatt
May-August 2016, 6(2):65-65
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.190314  
  2,781 209 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease in Rheumatic Heart Disease and Comparison of Demographic and Coronary Artery Disease Profile with Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease
Dinesh Choudhary, Amit K Chaurasia, VA Rohan, Ajeet Arulkumar, S Mahesh Kumar, S Harikrishnan, G Sanjay, VK Ajithkumar, T Titus, JA Tharakan
May-August 2016, 6(2):76-83
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.190322  
Aim: In India, coronary angiography (CAG) is usually performed in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients before valve replacement surgery if there is any suspicion of coronary artery disease (CAD) or the patient is aged >40 years. The aims of the present study were (1) to find the prevalence of CAD, CAD patterns and its association with various CAD risk factors in RHD patients and (2) to study the association of inflammation seen in RHD with prevalence of CAD. Materials and Methods: The records of 1204 RHD patients who underwent CAG before surgery from 2001 to 2010 were evaluated. Patients of RHD with significant CAD (≥50% stenosis) were compared with age- and sex-matched patients of RHD with no CAD and atherosclerotic CAD patients. All RHD patients with embolic acute coronary artery syndrome were excluded from the study. Results: One-hundred and nine (9.05%) RHD patients had significant CAD (males 65.1% and females 34.9%). The mean age was 52.8 ± 8.6 years (52.3 ± 8.9 years for males and 53.6 ± 8 years for females). Involvement of mitral valve was seen in 66.1%, aortic valve in 7.3% and both valves in 26.6% in these patients. Single-vessel disease, double-vessel disease or triple-vessel disease was present in 58.7%, 27.5% and 13.8%, respectively. Left main coronary artery was involved in 4.6% of the cases. Left anterior descending (LAD) was the most common vessel involved (68.9%), followed by right coronary artery (44.1%) and left circumflex artery (42.3%). Univariate analysis showed that polymorphonuclear leucocyte count was significantly higher (P = 0.037; odds ratio: 1.03 with 95% confidence interval: 1.001–1.056) in RHD CAD patients than the atherosclerotic CAD patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of CAD in patients with RHD is similar to other Indian studies but lower than the Western countries. Single-vessel involvement, mostly LAD, is more common among these patients. CAD risk factor is less common than the atherosclerotic patients. CAD in these patients may be attributed to the inflammatory state seen with RHD.
  2,591 310 -
Efficacy of ozonated water, 2% chlorhexidine and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite on five microorganisms of endodontic infection: In vitro study
D Savitri, Shibani Shetty, SM Sharath Chandra, KB Jayalakshmi, Manje Gowda, Nitesh Rai, Arul Selvan, Swetha Reddy
January-April 2018, 8(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_45_16  
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of ozonated water (4 mg/l), 2% chlorhexidine solution, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution on five common endodontic microorganisms. Methods: The organisms chosen in the study were Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Kocuria rhizophila. Agar well diffusion test direct contact test were used as methods to assess antimicrobial effectiveness. In agar well diffusion test, the maximum zone of inhibition formed around the well in an agar plate after incubation of test materials against each microorganism for 24 h and 48 h were measured. In direct contact test, the colonies of E. faecalis formed on agar plates with each test material were calculated. Results: The results showed that 2% chlorhexidine showed highest zone size and minimum colony forming units indicating its highest potency and ozonated water was showed the least efficacy with a significant difference between both groups. The colony forming units showed an increase in number when ozonated water was used against E. faecalis
  2,326 364 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on orofacial pain: A literature review
Haleh Zokaee, Amir Hossein Akbari Zahmati, Nadia Mojrian, Aghigheh Boostani, Masoumeh Vaghari
May-August 2018, 8(2):70-73
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_2_18  
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a therapeutic approach to treat orofacial pain using a 600–1000 nm laser with a <500 mW power. The efficacy of LLLT is due to the chemical reactions causing an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect on the affected regions. The aim of this study is to review the effects of low-level laser application on orofacial pain in the English articles released since 2017. Our search keywords were 'low-level laser therapy, temporomandibular disease (TMD), mucositis and orofacial pain'. The most relevant papers were clinical trial, review and meta-analysis articles. 26 out of 243 searched articles were selected from PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct and reviewed. Most of the studies reported the positive role of LLLT on orofacial pain relief regardless of their variable procedures; however, the exact mechanism of action still remains unclear. Some studies indicated that LLLT has significantly reduced pain, reduceamount of clicking and both masseter and temporal muscles activityin TMD. As an overall result, it is concluded that LLLT can be served as a therapeutic method for myofascial pain, mucositis and temporomandibular joint disorders and this is due to its analgesic features.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Magnetic resonance urography in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy
Irshad Ahmad, Mohd Ilyas, Insha Khan, Irfan Robbani, Baldev S Wazir
May-August 2018, 8(2):91-101
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_61_17  
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study the utility of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in the evaluation of obstructive urological diseases in comparison to intravenous urography (IVU). Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a period of 2 years. A total of 55 patients were included in this study with ages between 14 and 70 years (average age 37 years). The patients were selected on the basis of ultrasonographic findings of hydronephrosis. The patients were subjected to IVU followed by static and dynamic MRU. The results obtained were compared and the inferences drawn thereof. Results and Conclusions: MRU has high sensitivity in the diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction, detecting the level of obstruction and acts as an aid in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy, thus showing promising results. MRU is safer than IVU due to avoidance of iodinated contrast material and could also be done without using contrast material so having less contrast related events.
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Global cancer statistics 2018: Globocan estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide prostate cancers and their relationship with the human development index
Zaher Khazaei, Malihe Sohrabivafa, Victoria Momenabadi, Leili Moayed, Elham Goodarzi
September-December 2019, 9(3):245-250
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.262891  
Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and is the second leading cause of death, especially in developed countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and its relationship with the human development index (HDI). Materials and Methods: This is an ecological review of the incidence of prostate cancer and its relation with HDI and its components in 2018. Data about the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer for the year 2018 were obtained from the global cancer project for 185 countries. To analyse data, correlation test and regression tests were used to evaluate the correlation between the incidence and mortality with HDI. The statistical analysis was carried out by Stata-14, and the significance level was estimated at the level of 0.05. Results: The result showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between the incidence (R = 0.531,P < 0.001) and mortality (R = −0.219,P < 0.001) of prostate cancer with HDI. The linear regression model showed that the increase in HDI, mean years of schooling (MYS), expected years of schooling (EYS), life expectancy at birth (LBE) and gross national income was associated with an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in men, but it was statistically significant only in MYS (B = 3.6,P < 0.05) and EYS (B = 4.8,P < 0.05). Furthermore, the increase in life expectancy at birth (B = −0.45,P < 0.05) significantly decreased mortality. Conclusion: By increasing the HDI the incidence of prostate cancer increases, but the mortality rate decreases. Therefore, HDI can be used to provide a clear picture of the distribution of this cancer. Having a comprehensive picture of the epidemiological features and changes of prostate cancer has a significant role to play in preventing, diagnosing and treating early, and reducing mortality.
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CASE REPORTS
Hemisection-saving by Slicing
Kunjan Joshi, Vatsala Singh, Preeti Kambalyal
May-August 2016, 6(2):104-107
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.190320  
The progressing inflammatory periodontal disease, if untreated, ultimately results in tooth loss. This inflammatory process can also affect the bifurcation or trifurcation of multi-rooted teeth. A mandibular molar with Grade III furcation and an endodontic involvement has always been a challenge for treatment, management and long-term prognosis. Hemisection refers to the removal or separation of root with its accompanying crown portion of two-rooted teeth, most likely mandibular molars. It is one of the treatment options for preserving the remaining part of the molar having sound periodontium. The present case report demonstrates the successful management of Grade III furcation involvement by hemisection procedure in mandibular molar using a vertical cut method and rehabilitation with fixed prosthesis.
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