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   2016| September-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 3  
    Online since December 7, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Dental Anomalies: An Update
Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam
September-December 2016, 6(3):112-118
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195316  
Dental anomalies are usual congenital malformation that can happen either as isolated findings or as a part of a syndrome. Developmental anomalies influencing the morphology exists in both deciduous and permanent dentition and shows different forms such as gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens evaginatus (DE), enamel pearls, taurodontism or peg-shaped laterals. All These anomalies have clinical significance concerning aesthetics, malocclusion and more necessary preparing of the development of dental decays and oral diseases. Through a search in PubMed, Google, Scopus and Medline, a total of eighty original research papers during 1928-2016 were found with the keywords such as dental anomaly, syndrome, tooth and hypodontia. One hundred review titles were identified, eighty reviews were retrieved that were finally included as being relevant and of sufficient quality. In this review, dental anomalies including gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens invaginatus, DE, taurodontism, enamel pearls, fluorosis, peg-shaped laterals, dentinal dysplasia, regional odontodysplasia and hypodontia are discussed. Diagnosing dental abnormality needs a thorough evaluation of the patient, involving a medical, dental, familial and clinical history. Clinical examination and radiographic evaluation and in some of the cases, specific laboratory tests are also needed. Developmental dental anomalies require careful examination and treatment planning. Where one anomaly is present, clinicians should suspect that other anomalies may also be present. Moreover, careful clinical and radiographical examination is required. Furthermore, more complex cases need multidisciplinary planning and treatment.
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CASE REPORTS
Geographic Tongue: A Case Report with Review of Literature
Nupur Shah, Pratik Kariya, Bhavna Dave, Princy Thomas
September-December 2016, 6(3):142-144
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195321  
Tongue is a most delicate part of the oral cavity. It is in charge of numerous functions like swallowing, speech, mastication, speaking and breathing. Geographic tongue (Benign migratory glossitis, erythema migrans) is an asymptomatic inflammatory disorder of tongue with controversial etiology. This disease is characterized by erythematous areas showing raised greyish or white circulated lines or bands with irregular pattern on the dorsal surface of the tongue and depapillation. The objective in presenting the case report and literature review is to discuss the clinical presentation, etiological factors, associated syndrome and management strategies of geographic tongue.
  5,247 696 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Role of Digital and Palmar Dermatoglyphics in Early Detection of Oral Leukoplakia, Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients
N Lakshmana, A Ravikiran, Y Samatha, Abhishek Singh Nayya, Pavani B Vamsi, B Kartheeki
September-December 2016, 6(3):136-141
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195320  
Background and Objectives: Unusual dermatoglyphics may indicate genetic or chromosomal aberrations consistent with numerous diseases. The aim of the present study was to relate dermatoglyphic patterns in oral leucoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyse the qualitative and quantitative variations in digital and palmar dermatoglyphics amongst the patients diagnosed with oral leucoplakia, OSMF and OSCC. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 225 patients, of which 75 patients were diagnosed with oral leucoplakia and OSMF, 75 patients were diagnosed with OSCC whereas 75 high-risk individuals with habits but without active lesions, was carried out. Finger and palmar prints were collected and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: In oral leucoplakia, OSMF and OSCC patients, loops were found to be the predominant finger ridge patterns whereas whorls were predominant in the control group. Conclusion: The study concluded that dermatoglyphics might serve as a potential tool in the early detection of the various oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions.
  2,021 261 -
A Comparative Analysis between Width and Length Variables in Kvaal's and Cameriere's Methods of Age Estimation in a Specific Populace of Andhra Pradesh
Mohammed Arif Dar, A Ravikiran, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, Anand B Babu
September-December 2016, 6(3):119-128
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195317  
Context: Comparison between ante- and post-mortem dental records and radiographs produces results with a high degree of reliability and relative simplicity. Kvaal et al. introduced an age estimation method by indirectly measuring secondary dentin deposition on radiographs. Cameriere et al., later, put forth a method based on radiographic estimation of pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) in canines. The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the various width and length variables in Kvaal's and Cameriere's methods of age estimation in a specific populace of Andhra Pradesh origin. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients aged between 15 and 75 years were selected, and the variables p = complete pulp length/root length (from enamel-cementum junction [ECJ]-root apex), r = complete pulp length/complete tooth length, a = complete pulp length/root width at ECJ level, b = pulp/root width at midpoint level between ECJ level and mid-root level and c = pulp/root width at mid-root level and pulp/tooth AR were recorded as devised in Kvaal's and Cameriere's methods of age estimation, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software (version 10.5) package. Mean comparison of morphological variables was carried out using Student's t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of measurements was studied using the concordance correlation coefficient. Results: Of all the morphological variables, variables such as p = complete pulp length/root length (from ECJ-root apex), r = complete pulp length/complete tooth length and mean (M), length (L) and pulp/tooth AR correlated significantly, with age with variable p = complete pulp length/root length (from ECJ-root apex) correlating the best amongst them. Conclusion: Variables associated with width ratios (a = complete pulp length/root width at ECJ level, b = pulp/root width at midpoint level between ECJ level and mid-root level and c = pulp/root width at mid-root level) rather than length ratios (p = complete pulp length/root length [from ECJ-root apex] and r = complete pulp length/complete tooth length) correlated best with chronological age in the populace of Andhra Pradesh origin.
  1,855 240 -
Study of Association of Serum Uric Acid with Serum Lipids, Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and In-hospital Outcome in Patients with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An Observational Study
Ravindra Pal, Prabhat Kanvaria, CL Nawal
September-December 2016, 6(3):132-135
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195319  
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of serum uric acid (SUA) levels in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Materials and Methods: Totally 200 consecutive patients with STEMI were prospectively studied from January 2014 to December 2014. The levels of serum lipid, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with hyperuricaemia (n = 56) were compared with those in patients without hyperuricaemia (n = 144). All data were analysed with GraphPad prism version 6.0 software (Graphpad Software, Inc., CA, USA). Results: SUA level was positively correlated with serum triglyceride level (TGL) (r = 0.102, P = 0.042) and negatively with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = −0.149, P = 0.0034). Serum TGL was significantly higher in hyperuricaemic patients (153.7 ΁ 63.87 vs. 138.2 ΁ 34.69, P = 0.027). Patients with left ventricular failure (P = 0.006) and cardiogenic shock (P = 0.029) had significantly higher levels of uric acid. There was no significant difference in males and females with respect to serum TGLs, cardiogenic shock and left ventricular failure. However, no significant association was observed between SUA level and diabetes mellitus, hypertension, LVEF, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, acute renal failure and overall mortality. Conclusion: We conclude that high SUA is significantly associated with high serum TGLs and occurrence of cardiogenic shock and left ventricular failure irrespective of the sex.
  1,863 222 -
CASE REPORTS
Dental Neglect Leading to Foreign Body Lodgement in Pulp Chamber
Pratik Bipinkumar Kariya, Sweta Singh, Rachappa M Mallikarjuna, Somya Govil
September-December 2016, 6(3):145-148
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195322  
Foreign object embedded in a tooth is not an uncommon finding, especially in children undergoing root canal therapy or who has experienced trauma leading to teeth fracture. Many children with a habit of placing various objects in the oral cavity eventually end up with foreign body lodgement into the pulp chamber or root canal leading to pain and infection. Parental negligence is responsible to a great extent in such kind of accident as they fail to keep watch on their children and their teeth. A number of foreign objects have been reported to be lodged in the pulp chamber and root canals of both deciduous and permanent teeth. Various instruments and kits have been used on retrieval of foreign objects lying in the pulp chamber or canal.
  1,702 189 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Herbal Use amongst Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital: Pattern and Perceptions
Kritika Agrawal, Divya Goel
September-December 2016, 6(3):129-131
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195318  
Introduction: Herbal drug usage is very common in general population; their usage is much more in developing countries such as India. Many untoward instances have been reported either because of herbs per se or because of their interactions with other drugs. Aim: We lack the data showing the prevalence of herbal use, and to fill these gaps, the authors aimed to document the prevalence and perception of herbal drug usage in patients visiting the outpatient department (OPD) of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 patients visiting various OPDs. After obtaining informed consent, patients were given questionnaires seeking their sociodemographic data, medical history and herbal drug intake and their perception about herbal drugs. Results: The study population consisted of 127 men and 117 women, out of these 107 (43.49%) patients reported the usage of herbal drugs. Seventy-three (68.2%) patients were taking these herbs on the advice of an alternate therapist. Among those who take herbs, majority of them i.e., 48 (44.9%) think that herbs cure the illness. Moreover, only 38.3% have disclosed herbal intake to the treating physician. While in non-herbal users, most of them i.e., 76 (71.3%) had never given a thought to herbal drugs as they lack knowledge. Conclusion: Herbal drug use is quite common and at the same time disclosure to healthcare professionals about it is very low. We conclude that for effective and safe usage of herbal drugs, we have to promote educational research for both consumers as well as for healthcare professionals.
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EDITORIAL
Research in India: To Be Re-search
Rohan Bhatt
September-December 2016, 6(3):111-111
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195315  
  1,355 279 -