|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 143-146
Assessing condition academic self-efficacy and related factors among medical students
Aida Abusalehi1, Beyrambibi Bayat2, Neda Ahmadzadeh Tori2, Hamid Salehiniya2
1 Department of Public Health, Neyshabur University of Medical Siences, Neyshabur, Iran
2 Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||8-May-2019|
Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Academic self-efficacy is an important key structure along students' academic progress which can lead to increase learning. The aim of this study was to examine academic self-efficacy and related factors among the students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 385 students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Samples were selected through stratified sampling method. Data were collected through questionnaire of academic self-efficacy scale 32 that reliability and validity of that was confirmed. Data analysis was done through SPSS18 software. Descriptive statistics and independent t-test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient were performed at statistical significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean academic self-efficacy in boys was 107/75 (standard deviation [SD] = 16/10) and in girls 107/19 (SD = 15/82). The Pearson correlation test results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between age with academic self-efficacy (P = 0.001, r = 0.170). Independent t-test results indicate that there is no significant statistical relationship between self-efficacy and location. According to the ANOVA, there was a significant correlation between the college degrees and academic self-efficacy (P = 0.003). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate the importance of age and college degrees in forecasting academic self-efficacy of students.
Keywords: Academic self-efficacy, medical science, students
|How to cite this article:|
Abusalehi A, Bayat B, Tori NA, Salehiniya H. Assessing condition academic self-efficacy and related factors among medical students. Adv Hum Biol 2019;9:143-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Abusalehi A, Bayat B, Tori NA, Salehiniya H. Assessing condition academic self-efficacy and related factors among medical students. Adv Hum Biol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Oct 22];9:143-6. Available from: https://www.aihbonline.com/text.asp?2019/9/2/143/257824
| Introduction|| |
Society and higher education are concerned about the future and the successful development of the universe as well as its place. With a profound look at the factors affecting academic achievement, we find that one of the factors influencing academic achievement is the ability and academic self-efficacy. Over the past two decades, self-efficacy has become apparent as a motivational factor in the study of human behaviour, so that self-efficacy increases the level of performance in homework. Academic self-efficacy beliefs are known as a part of general self-efficacy beliefs that based on the theory of self-efficacy beliefs of Bandura, the definition that exists for self-esteem beliefs is that one has the ability to realise the duties necessary to achieve his or her academic goals. These beliefs are not only related to the number of skills that a person has but also beliefs such as doing research activities, having a successful relationship with the professors, studying, asking questions in the classroom if the subject is ambiguous, getting good grades, participating in class discussions, having a friendly and friendly relationship with other students and so forth. Believing in certain circumstances and academic situations is that the person has the confidence to be able to perform them. Persons with such abilities and efforts are able to find suitable solutions to the problems they face, and they are more resistant to solving educational problems. These beliefs have a positive impact on a variety of factors, including choice of goals, decision-making and mental health., In the educational system, one of the expected functions of the students is academic self-efficacy and academic achievement. The academic achievement of learners in each educational system is considered as a final goal, which is achieved by several factors. One of these factors is the students' perception of their ability to perform academic activities called academic self-efficacy. Academic self-efficacy focuses on one's perceptions of learning ability and inclusive performance in teaching assignments. The main human motivation is self-efficacy beliefs. The greater the benefit of individuals, the higher their chance of success in doing things. Academic self-efficacy is one of the factors that reduces confusion among other stressful factors. Problems such as weaknesses in academic performance are among the factors that have attracted the attention of many scholars in order to find a way to improve academic performance in students. The results of the study on academic self-efficacy beliefs in a Turkish university by Gökçek et al. among students showed that 35% of respondents to the test have the ability to understand written studies in English and 29% of them used English-language studies. On the other hand, 71% of the students reported having the ability to prepare assignments, presentations and planning and 66% of them in the provision and browsing of the press, as well as 57% of them were able to use databases. Medical students are among the influential people in promoting community health that creating self-efficacy in them can increase their motivation and lead to the adoption of goals, and as a result, job opportunities in the future. This can increase confidence in students. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the status of academic self-efficacy and its related factors in Tehran University of Medical Sciences students.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This cross-sectional study was conducted and the statistical population of this study comprised students of all stages of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2016–2017. The sample of this study (385 students) was selected from seven faculties (medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, health, paramedical, nursing and midwifery and rehabilitation) by stratified sampling, so that each of the existing colleges was considered as a class, and in proportion to the size of the students of each faculty, they were available in the form of a study.
The criterion of entering the study was the willingness to participate in the study. Exit criteria were also unwilling to participate in the study. To calculate the sample size for studying the status of academic self-efficacy, P = 0.05, q = 0.05 and alpha = 1.96 with the accuracy of 0.05 was considered, so that the samples calculated as 385 students. The validity and reliability of the data gathering tool was confirmed by Saadat et al., study.
Academic self-efficacy questionnaire, which was prepared by them for student self-efficacy beliefs, which contains 33 questions and they are from very low to very high score from 1 to 5 that In the Persian version of this Questionnaire, Question 28 is not available because the topic 28 is related to the laboratory and all fields have no laboratory lessons. This questionnaire contains 32 questions and measures the level of student confidence in taking notes, classroom attention, asking questions in case of ambiguity, computer use, etc. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for this questionnaire was 0.91 for all students and 0.90 for female students and 0.91 for male students. In fact, the total scores of these questions represent the degree of academic self-efficacy in students. The minimum score you get is 32, and the maximum score is 160. Demographic information includes questions (age, gender, college degrees and place of residence). The method of implementation was that by referring to each college, a questionnaire was distributed among those who were willing to cooperate in the research.
Statistical analysis method
After collecting data, by using SPSS (PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0, Chicago, SPSS Inc., USA) descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test and ANOVA at a significance level of <0.05, data were analysed.
This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was approved at the Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 1395 with the ethics code of IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1395.105. People were justified before entering the study and entered the study with consent. Participants' information is kept confidential by the researcher. Questionnaires were filled out as anonymous. Therefore, this study did not have any problems with moral considerations.
| Results|| |
In this study, 385 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the participants was 25.31, with a standard deviation of 3.94, the lowest was 18 and the highest was 44 years. A greater percentage of participants in this study were girls. 56.1% (216 people). The average score of education was 17.22 ± 1.05.
Regarding educational level, 35.1% of them were general physician, 13.8% of the students were bachelor holder, 34.8% of them has master degree and 16.4% of the Ph.D. More than 225 people (58.4%) lived in the dormitory [Table 1].
According to the correlation test, there was a significant positive correlation between age and academic self-efficacy (r = 0.17, P = 0.001), and as the age grows, self-efficacy increases.
Independent t-test showed that the academic self-efficacy score did not differ significantly in terms of gender (P = 0.73).
Furthermore, there was no significant difference between academic self-efficacy scores of students with their place of residence (P = 0.32).
The results of ANOVA test showed that there is a significant correlation between academic self-efficacy and college degrees scores (P = 0.03) [Table 2].
|Table 2: Comparison of academic self-efficacy score by gender, college degrees and place of residence|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The results of this study showed that there is no significant difference between girls and boys in the mean scores of academic self-efficacy. While the results of Jane, conducted in 2014 showed that the mean scores of girls' academic self-efficacy in both academic self-efficacy and self-regulation learning were more than boys.
The study of Richardson and Zabihollahi et al. also found that academic self-efficacy in girls was significantly higher than that of boys. However, this is in contrast with the result of studies which shows that often, boys have more self-efficacy than girls., What is derived from many studies is that the pattern of gender differences in self-efficacy varies from one issue to another. For example, Busch in their study stated that self-efficacy of female students was significantly lower in computing and marketing areas and higher in statistics than male students. Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons study also showed girls have surpassed the verbal self-efficacy of boys, while boys have a stronger math self-efficacy.
The meta-analysis of the gender differences in academic self-efficacy showed that the content and scope of the study were a significant determinant for explaining gender differences in self-efficacy. In Chavez's et al. study, self-efficacy was studied in different dimensions and subscales and the results showed that there is a significant difference between the self-efficacy of attention (which focuses on listening to the professor and the expression of the point of view), perceived self-efficacy and an acceptable self-efficacy and achievable self-efficacy between girls and boys, but dissatisfaction with self-efficacy and also the probability of promoting perceived self-efficacy between the two sex groups is not statistically significant. However, although our study, such as the results of Zenalipur et al., suggests that gender groups do not differ in the mean score of academic self-efficacy; since Bandura claims in his social cognitive theory that gender is one of the factors influencing self-efficacy expectations, and since in our research, academic self-efficacy was assessed in general rather than in terms of different subjects or areas; it is advisable to consider any attempt and effort to promote perceived self-efficacy of gender.
Furthermore, this study shows that the mean scores of academic self-efficacy are statistically significant in terms of academic grades, and as an interesting result, students with lower educational levels reported higher academic self-efficacy than higher-level students. In justifying this finding from the research, it can be admitted that students did not tend to work at lower levels than they did after completing their education and consequently, increasing their expectations, students have no interest in working at levels that are lower than themselves. Since the work capacity in Iran is relatively low; students who pursue post-graduate studies faced with very little job security, consistent with their work and education. For this reason, students have lost their soda and hope gradually, for a safe future at the beginning of their journey after completing their course, and this could be an important factor in reducing students' academic self-esteem during graduation. The study of Saffari et al. also indicates that academic grades were effective on the mean score of general self-efficacy.
The present study showed a statistically significant relationship between age and academic self-efficacy. It seems that the reason of this fact that the average self-efficacy score varies among different levels of age is depending on the level of life skills and experiences of individuals. By increasing the age of individuals, they will gain more experience and skills in their lives and this will lead to an increase in their self-efficacy levels.
Bandura also introduces self-efficacy in social cognitive theory as one of the individual factors that can play a significant role in overcoming a person's behaviour. Moreover, it is true that anyone who can achieve more successful results can be more reliable in his abilities and perform his duties and of course by growing the age, individual experiences increase. According to the results of this study, no significant difference was found between the type of students' residency (dormitory or non-dormitory) and academic self-efficacy. However, the study by Jalilian et al. showed that depression in students living in a dormitory is significantly higher. Furthermore, the study showed that there is a significant reverse relationship between general self-efficacy and depression. Further studies have shown that levels of academic self-efficacy are also highly correlated with depression.,
The results of this study were based on self-reporting tools (rather than actual behaviour analysis). It is possible that participants encouraged to use methods based on social recognition and to avoid defamation related to individual inadequacy. In addition, since the sample of research in this study was selected solely among university students, it may not be generalised to other universities; therefore, it is recommended to conduct further studies using representative examples of universities and disciplines.
| Conclusion|| |
The findings of this research indicate the importance of age and college degrees in predicting students' academic self-efficacy. Therefore, it is necessary to plan by the university authorities to improve the academic self-efficacy of students.
This article is a part of a research project approved by the Students' Scientific Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences students at 31376. By this, it is appreciated from the Students' Scientific Research Center in Tehran University of Medical Sciences as well as for all the students who participated in this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Raeisoon M, Mohammadi Y, Abdorazaghnejad M, Sharifzadeh G. An investigation of the relationship between self-concept, self-esteem, and academic achievement of students in the nursing-midwifery faculty in Qaen during 2012-13 academic year. Mod Care J 2014;11:236-42.
Komarraju M, Nadler D. Self-efficacy and academic achievement: why do implicit beliefs, goals, and effort regulation matter? Learn Individ Differ J 2013;25:67-72.
Bandura A. Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educ Psychol 1993;28:117-48.
Gallagher M. Self-efficacy. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior. 2nd
ed. Academic Press; Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States; 2012. p. 314-20.
Bandura A. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control: wH Freeman New York; Macmillan; 1997.
Fakhri Z, Rezaii A, Pakdaman S, Ebrahimi S. The mediator role educational self-achievement in goal achievement prediction based on positive and negative emotion in adolescents. J Appl Psychol 2013;6:55-68.
Asghari F, Saadat S, Atefi Karajvandani S, Janalizadeh Kokaneh S. The relationship between academic self-efficacy and psychological well- being, family cohesion, and spiritual health among students of Kharazmi university. Iran J Med Educ 2014;14:581-93.
Bedel E. Exploring academic motivation, academic self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching in pre-service early childhood education teachers. J Educ Train Stud 2016;4:142-9.
Khajeh L, Hosseinchari M. Examine the relationship between social anxiety and psycho-social environment class with self-efficacy in middle school students. J Educ Psychol 2011;20:131-53.
Marino P, Sirey JA, Raue PJ, Alexopoulos GS. Impact of social support and self-efficacy on functioning in depressed older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2008;3:713-8.
Jamali M, Noroozi A, Tahmasebi R. Factors affecting academic self-efficacy and its association with academic achievement among students of Bushehr university medical sciences 2012-13. Iran J Med Educ 2013;13:629-41.
Gökçek T, Taşkın D, Yıldız C. Investigation of graduate students' academic self-efficacy beliefs. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2014;141:1134-9.
Saadat S, Asghari F, Jazayeri R. The relationship between academic self-efficacy with perceived stress, coping strategies and perceived social support among students of University of Guilan. Iran J Med Educ 2015;15:67-78.
Jane WW. Gender differences in school children's self-efficacy beliefs: Students' and teachers' perspectives. Educ Res Rev 2014;9:75.
Richardson E. Self-efficacy and Self-Handicapping: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Adolescents in the Bahamas and the United States: Roosevelt University; 2007.
Zabihollahi K, Yazdani V, Gholamali L. Academic self-efficacy and self-handicapping in high school students. Dev Psychol J Iran Psychol 2013;9:203-12.
Pajares F, Miller M. Role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem solving: A path analysis. J Educ Psychol 1994;86:193.
Khan AS, Cansever Z, Avsar UZ, Acemoglu H. Perceived self-efficacy and academic performance of medical students at Ataturk university, Turkey. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2013;23:495-8.
Busch T. Gender differences in self-efficacy and academic performance among students of business administration. Scand J Educ Res 1995;39:311-8.
Zimmerman BJ, Martinez-Pons M. Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. J Educ Psychol 1990;82:51.
Huang C. Gender differences in academic self-efficacy: A meta-analysis. Eur J Psychol Educ 2013;28:1-35.
Chavez JF, Beltran FM, Guerrero AC, Enriquez MC. A gender study on college students' academic self-efficacy. Sci J Educ 2014;2:180-4.
Zenalipur H, Zarei A, Zandiniya Z. Students' general and educational self-efficacy and it's relationship with academic performance. J Educ Psychol Stud 2009;6:13-28.
Bussey K, Bandura A. Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychol Rev 1999;106:676-713.
Saffari M, Sanaeinasab H, Rashidi Jahan H, Purtaghi G, Pakpour A. Happiness, self-efficacy and academic achievement among students of Baqiyatallah university of medical sciences. J Med Educ Dev 2014;7:45-56.
Jalilian F, Emdadi S, Karimi M, Barati M, Gharibnavaz H. Depression among college students the role of general self-efficacy and perceived social support. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18:60-6.
Tahmassian K, Anari A. The relation between domains of self-efficacy and depression in adolescence. J Appl Psychol 2009;3:84-94.
Faramarzi M, Khafri S. Role of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression in predicting self-efficacy in academic students. ScientificWorldJournal 2017;2017:5798372.
[Table 1], [Table 2]